1. What are the visa requirements for moving to Ethiopia?

1. The visa requirements for moving to Ethiopia vary depending on the nationality of the individual. However, in general, most foreign nationals will need a visa to enter and stay in Ethiopia for an extended period. Here are some common types of visas for moving to Ethiopia:

2. Tourist Visa: This type of visa is suitable for individuals who plan to visit Ethiopia for a short period, typically for tourism purposes. It is usually valid for 30 to 90 days.

3. Business Visa: If you are planning to move to Ethiopia for business purposes, you will need a business visa. This type of visa allows you to engage in business activities in the country.

4. Work Visa: For individuals seeking employment opportunities in Ethiopia, a work visa is required. You will need a job offer from an Ethiopian employer to obtain this visa.

5. Residence Permit: If you plan to stay in Ethiopia for an extended period, you may need to apply for a residence permit. The requirements for a residence permit can vary depending on factors such as the purpose of your stay and your nationality.

6. It is important to check with the Ethiopian embassy or consulate in your country for the most up-to-date and detailed information on visa requirements before planning your move to Ethiopia. Additionally, make sure to have all the necessary documentation, such as a valid passport, visa application forms, and supporting documents, to ensure a smooth visa application process.

2. What are the best neighborhoods to live in Ethiopia?

While determining the “best” neighborhoods to live in Ethiopia ultimately depends on individual preferences and priorities, there are several neighborhoods in the capital city of Addis Ababa that are popular among expats and locals alike:

1. Bole: Bole is a vibrant and cosmopolitan neighborhood located close to the airport, making it convenient for travelers. It offers a wide range of housing options, from apartments to luxury villas, as well as numerous restaurants, cafes, and shopping centers.

2. Kazanchis: Situated in the heart of Addis Ababa, Kazanchis is a bustling neighborhood known for its commercial activity and proximity to government offices, embassies, and international organizations. It is ideal for those looking for a central location with easy access to amenities.

3. Old Airport: Old Airport is a quiet and residential neighborhood that provides a peaceful retreat from the city’s hustle and bustle. It is characterized by tree-lined streets, spacious homes, and a strong sense of community.

4. CMC: CMC (Cape Verde) is a rapidly developing neighborhood that offers modern housing options, upscale shopping centers, and recreational facilities. It is popular among expats and affluent Ethiopians looking for a more upscale lifestyle.

5. Sarbet: Sarbet is another upscale neighborhood known for its luxury homes, proximity to international schools, and upscale dining options. It is a popular choice for families and individuals looking for a high-end living experience.

Ultimately, the best neighborhood for you will depend on your budget, lifestyle preferences, and priorities. It is recommended to visit different neighborhoods, speak to locals and expats, and explore the amenities and services available in each area before making a decision.

3. How do I find accommodation in Ethiopia?

When looking for accommodation in Ethiopia, there are several options you can explore:

1. Online Platforms: Websites like Airbnb, Booking.com, and Expedia offer a range of accommodations in Ethiopia, including hotels, guesthouses, and apartments. You can browse through listings, read reviews, and make reservations online.

2. Local Real Estate Agencies: In major cities like Addis Ababa, there are real estate agencies that specialize in rentals. You can contact these agencies to help you find a suitable apartment or house within your budget and preferred location.

3. Networking: Reach out to local contacts, expat communities, or online forums to get recommendations on available properties for rent in Ethiopia. Networking can also help you find shared accommodation options or roommates if you prefer.

4. Renting Through Word of Mouth: Sometimes, the best way to find accommodation in Ethiopia is through word of mouth. Ask locals, colleagues, or friends for any leads on available properties for rent in the area you are interested in.

Keep in mind that rental prices and housing standards can vary significantly across different regions in Ethiopia, so it’s essential to do thorough research and visit properties in person before making a decision.

4. What is the cost of living in Ethiopia?

The cost of living in Ethiopia can vary depending on factors such as the city you choose to live in, your lifestyle, and personal preferences. Generally speaking, Ethiopia is considered to be an affordable country to live in compared to many Western countries. Here are some approximate monthly costs to give you an idea:

1. Rent: Rent can vary significantly depending on the type of accommodation and location. In Addis Ababa, the capital city, you can expect to pay around $300-$800 for a one-bedroom apartment in the city center, while outside the city center, prices may range from $200 to $500.

2. Food: The cost of groceries in Ethiopia is relatively low, especially if you stick to buying local produce. On average, a single person can spend around $50-$100 on food per month.

3. Transportation: Public transportation in Ethiopia is inexpensive, with a single bus fare costing around $0.25. If you prefer to use taxis, prices can vary but are generally affordable.

4. Utilities: Utilities such as electricity, water, heating, and garbage services for a typical apartment can amount to around $50-$100 per month.

It’s important to note that these are rough estimates and actual costs may vary based on individual circumstances. Overall, Ethiopia offers a cost-effective living environment compared to many Western countries, making it an attractive option for expats and those looking to relocate.

5. How do I find a job in Ethiopia?

1. One of the main ways to find a job in Ethiopia is through online job portals and websites specific to the region, such as Ethiojobs.net, Ezega Jobs, and EmployEthiopia. These platforms list various job opportunities across different sectors and industries in Ethiopia.
2. Networking is also crucial when looking for a job in Ethiopia. Attending career fairs, industry events, and professional networking events can help you connect with potential employers and learn about job openings.
3. Contacting recruitment agencies and headhunters in Ethiopia can also be beneficial, as they have access to job openings that may not be publicly advertised.
4. Additionally, reaching out to companies directly by sending them your resume and expressing your interest in working for them can sometimes lead to job opportunities.
5. Finally, utilizing social media platforms like LinkedIn to showcase your skills and connect with professionals in Ethiopia can also help you in your job search. Make sure to have an updated profile with relevant experience and qualifications to attract potential employers.

6. What are the healthcare facilities like in Ethiopia?

Healthcare facilities in Ethiopia vary significantly depending on the region. In major cities like Addis Ababa, there are modern hospitals and clinics offering a range of medical services. However, in more rural areas, healthcare facilities may be limited in terms of resources, equipment, and trained medical staff.

1. Public healthcare facilities in Ethiopia are often overcrowded and may lack basic medical supplies and equipment.
2. Private healthcare facilities are available in major cities, offering higher quality care but at a higher cost.
3. Traditional medicine is also prevalent in Ethiopia, with many people relying on traditional healers and herbal remedies.
4. The government has made efforts to improve healthcare infrastructure and services in recent years, particularly in rural areas.
5. Health insurance coverage is limited in Ethiopia, so expats moving to the country may want to consider purchasing international health insurance.
6. Overall, while there have been improvements in the healthcare system in Ethiopia, there are still challenges related to accessibility, quality of care, and resources. It is advisable for expats to research healthcare options in their specific location and ensure they have access to adequate medical services before moving to Ethiopia.

7. Is it safe to live in Ethiopia?

Living in Ethiopia can be safe overall, but it’s important to be cautious and aware of certain factors to ensure a safe experience. Here are some points to consider:

1. Political Stability: Ethiopia has experienced periods of unrest and protests in recent years, so it’s essential to stay informed about the current political situation and any potential risks.

2. Crime Rates: Like in any country, there are certain areas in Ethiopia where crime rates are higher. It’s advisable to take precautions such as avoiding walking alone at night and staying vigilant in crowded places.

3. Health Concerns: Make sure to take necessary health precautions, such as vaccinations, especially if you’re moving to rural areas where access to healthcare facilities may be limited.

4. Natural Disasters: Ethiopia is prone to natural disasters like droughts, floods, and occasional earthquakes. Familiarize yourself with emergency protocols and be prepared for such eventualities.

5. Road Safety: Road accidents are common in Ethiopia due to factors like poor road conditions and erratic driving behavior. Take caution when using public transportation or driving on your own.

6. Local Customs: Understanding and respecting the local culture and customs can contribute to your safety and overall positive experience in Ethiopia.

7. Foreign Relations: Lastly, keep in mind Ethiopia’s relations with neighboring countries and any potential security risks that may arise from regional conflicts.

By staying informed, being aware of your surroundings, and taking necessary precautions, you can enjoy a safe and enriching experience while living in Ethiopia.

8. What are the transportation options in Ethiopia?

In Ethiopia, there are several transportation options available for both locals and expats:

1. Public Transportation: The most common form of public transportation in Ethiopia is minibus taxis known as “blue donkeys. These minibusses operate in major cities and towns, offering a cost-effective way to get around. However, they can be overcrowded and often lack safety features.

2. Buses: Ethiopia has an extensive network of long-distance buses that connect major cities and towns. These buses are a popular option for those traveling between different regions of the country. Companies such as Selam Bus and Sky Bus provide comfortable and relatively affordable bus services.

3. Taxis: Taxis are readily available in urban areas like Addis Ababa, offering a more convenient and flexible mode of transportation. It is advisable to negotiate the fare before getting into a taxi to avoid any misunderstandings.

4. Ride-Hailing Services: Apps like RIDE and ZayRide operate in Addis Ababa, providing a convenient and safe way to book rides around the city. These services offer fixed prices and the ability to track your ride in real-time.

5. Trains: Ethiopia has a limited railway network, with the Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway being the most prominent line. This modern electric train service connects Addis Ababa to Djibouti and offers a comfortable and relatively quick way to travel between the two countries.

6. Domestic Flights: For long-distance travel within Ethiopia, domestic flights are available between major cities like Addis Ababa, Bahir Dar, Gondar, and Lalibela. Ethiopian Airlines is the leading carrier providing domestic flights with a good safety record.

7. Walking and Cycling: In smaller towns and rural areas, walking and cycling are common modes of transportation. These modes offer the opportunity to explore the local surroundings at a leisurely pace.

Overall, while Ethiopia may not have the most advanced transportation infrastructure, there are various options available to suit different preferences and budgets when moving around the country.

9. How do I open a bank account in Ethiopia?

To open a bank account in Ethiopia, you will need to visit a local branch of the bank you wish to open an account with. You will be required to provide the following documents:

1. Valid identification document (passport, national ID card, or resident permit).
2. Proof of address (utility bill or rental agreement).
3. Two passport-sized photographs.
4. A completed account opening form provided by the bank.

Once you have submitted all the necessary documents, the bank will verify your information and process your account opening request. It is important to note that some banks in Ethiopia may require additional documentation or have specific requirements for opening an account, so it is recommended to check with the specific bank beforehand.

10. What is the education system like in Ethiopia?

The education system in Ethiopia is structured into three main levels: primary education, secondary education, and higher education. Here is an overview of each level:

1. Primary Education: Primary education in Ethiopia is divided into two cycles, each lasting for four years. The first cycle, Grades 1-4, focuses on providing students with a basic foundation in subjects such as language, math, science, and social studies. The second cycle, Grades 5-8, builds on this foundation and introduces more advanced topics. Primary education is compulsory and free for all children.

2. Secondary Education: Secondary education in Ethiopia consists of two cycles as well. The first cycle, Grades 9-10, continues to build on the knowledge gained in primary school and offers students the opportunity to specialize in specific subjects. The second cycle, Grades 11-12, prepares students for university entrance exams and further education. Students can choose between general education or vocational education tracks at this level.

3. Higher Education: Ethiopia has a growing higher education sector, with many universities and colleges offering a wide range of programs and degrees. Admission to higher education institutions is based on the results of the national university entrance exam taken at the end of Grade 12. Higher education in Ethiopia is undergoing reforms to improve quality and relevance to the job market.

Overall, the education system in Ethiopia faces challenges such as a lack of resources, infrastructure, and qualified teachers, especially in rural areas. Efforts are being made to address these challenges and improve the quality of education throughout the country.

11. How do I make friends and socialize in Ethiopia?

Making friends and socializing in Ethiopia can be a rewarding experience if you are open to embracing the local culture and customs. Here are some tips to help you navigate social interactions in Ethiopia:

1. Be open and approachable: Ethiopians are generally friendly and welcoming people. Smile, greet people warmly, and show genuine interest in getting to know them.

2. Learn some key phrases in Amharic: While many Ethiopians speak English, making an effort to learn some basic phrases in the local language, such as greetings and common expressions, can go a long way in building rapport with locals.

3. Participate in community activities: Joining local clubs, organizations, or community events can be a great way to meet new people and immerse yourself in Ethiopian culture. Whether it’s a traditional coffee ceremony, a religious festival, or a sports event, participating in local activities can help you connect with others.

4. Attend social gatherings: Ethiopians are known for their love of social gatherings and celebrations. If you are invited to a wedding, festival, or other social event, seize the opportunity to mingle with locals and make new friends.

5. Explore the local food scene: Sharing a meal is a common way to bond with others in Ethiopian culture. Be open to trying local dishes, dining at traditional restaurants, and inviting people to join you for a meal.

6. Utilize social media and networking platforms: In this digital age, social media can also be a useful tool for meeting new people in Ethiopia. Join expat groups, community forums, or networking events to connect with like-minded individuals.

Remember that building friendships takes time, so be patient and open-minded as you navigate the social landscape in Ethiopia. By showing respect for the local culture and making an effort to engage with the community, you can form meaningful connections and create a fulfilling social life in your new home.

12. What is the best way to learn the local language in Ethiopia?

The best way to learn the local language in Ethiopia is through immersion and practice. Here are some steps to effectively learn the local language:

1. Take language classes: Enroll in language classes either online or in person to understand the basics of the language structure, vocabulary, and grammar.
2. Practice with locals: Try to engage with locals in conversations to practice speaking and listening skills. This can help you improve your fluency and learn colloquial expressions.
3. Use language learning apps: Utilize language learning apps like Duolingo, Rosetta Stone, or Babbel to supplement your learning and practice on the go.
4. Immerse yourself in the culture: Immerse yourself in the Ethiopian culture by watching local TV shows, listening to music, or reading books in the local language.
5. Keep a language journal: Write down new words, phrases, and sentences you learn in a journal to reinforce your memory and track your progress.
6. Find a language exchange partner: Connect with a language exchange partner who is a native speaker of the local language and can help you practice speaking and provide feedback.
7. Join language learning communities: Join online forums, social media groups, or language exchange meetups to interact with other language learners and native speakers for practice and support.

By following these steps and staying consistent with your practice, you can effectively learn the local language in Ethiopia and enhance your overall experience living in the country.

13. How do I navigate the culture and customs in Ethiopia?

Navigating the culture and customs in Ethiopia can be a rewarding experience if approached with an open mind and respect for the local traditions. Here are some key tips to help you navigate Ethiopian culture:

1. Research and Learn: Take the time to research and learn about the cultural norms and customs in Ethiopia before your arrival. Understanding the history, religion, and social etiquette of the country will help you adapt more easily.

2. Respect Traditional Values: Ethiopians place a high value on respect for elders, so be sure to greet older individuals first and use formal language when addressing them. It is also important to be mindful of traditional gender roles and expectations in social interactions.

3. Dress Code: Dress modestly and respectfully, especially when visiting religious sites or rural areas. Women are advised to wear long skirts or dresses, and both men and women should avoid wearing revealing clothing.

4. Greetings and Gestures: Greetings are an essential part of Ethiopian culture, so be sure to offer a friendly “hello” and shake hands when meeting someone. It is also customary to show respect by bowing slightly when greeting elders or authority figures.

5. Food and Dining Etiquette: Sharing meals is a common practice in Ethiopia, and it is customary to eat with your right hand. Injera, a traditional flatbread, is often used to scoop up stews and dishes. Remember to wait for the host to invite you to start eating before you begin your meal.

6. Religious Sensitivities: Ethiopia is a deeply religious country, with Christianity and Islam being the two dominant faiths. Be respectful of religious sites and practices, and avoid visiting churches or mosques during prayer times.

7. Language: While English is widely spoken in urban areas, learning a few basic phrases in Amharic, the official language of Ethiopia, can go a long way in showing respect for the local culture.

8. Time and Punctuality: Ethiopians have a more relaxed approach to time, so be prepared for events to start later than scheduled. Patience and flexibility are key when navigating social engagements and appointments.

9. Gift Giving: When visiting someone’s home, it is customary to bring a small gift such as flowers, sweets, or coffee as a token of appreciation. Avoid giving gifts in even numbers, as this is considered bad luck in Ethiopian culture.

10. Social Etiquette: Be mindful of your body language and tone of voice when interacting with others. Ethiopians value politeness and indirect communication, so try to maintain a calm and respectful demeanor in all your interactions.

By following these tips and approaching the culture with an open heart and mind, you can navigate the customs and etiquette of Ethiopia with grace and respect.

14. What are the best ways to send money back home from Ethiopia?

There are several convenient and reliable ways to send money back home from Ethiopia. Here are some of the best options:

1. International Money Transfer Services: Companies like Western Union, MoneyGram, and Ria Money Transfer offer fast and secure options for sending money internationally. You can visit their agent locations in Ethiopia to send money back home.

2. Bank Transfers: You can also transfer money from your Ethiopian bank account to an international bank account. Most major banks in Ethiopia offer international wire transfer services. Just make sure to check the fees and exchange rates before making a transfer.

3. Mobile Money Services: Mobile money services like WorldRemit and Xoom are gaining popularity in Ethiopia. You can use these platforms to send money back home using your mobile phone.

4. Online Money Transfer Platforms: Platforms like TransferWise and Remitly allow you to send money online from Ethiopia to your home country. These services often have competitive exchange rates and lower fees compared to traditional banks.

Before deciding on a method to send money back home, it is essential to compare the fees, exchange rates, and processing times of different options to find the most cost-effective and convenient solution for your needs.

15. What are the shopping options like in Ethiopia?

In Ethiopia, the shopping options vary depending on the area you are in. Here are some key points about shopping in Ethiopia:

1. Markets: Ethiopia is famous for its vibrant and bustling markets where you can find a wide variety of goods such as locally handcrafted items, spices, textiles, and fresh produce. The most popular market in Addis Ababa is the Merkato, which is one of the largest open-air markets in Africa.

2. Shopping malls: In recent years, modern shopping malls have been opening up in major cities like Addis Ababa. These malls offer a range of local and international brands, electronics, household items, and restaurants.

3. Street vendors: You can often find street vendors selling goods such as clothing, accessories, and traditional handicrafts in various parts of the city. Bargaining is common when shopping from street vendors.

4. Specialty shops: There are also specialty shops in Ethiopia that cater to specific interests such as traditional pottery, coffee, textiles, and art. These shops are great for picking up authentic Ethiopian souvenirs.

Overall, the shopping options in Ethiopia provide a diverse and unique shopping experience, blending modern convenience with traditional markets and artisanal crafts.

16. How do I find a reliable moving company to help with the relocation to Ethiopia?

1. To find a reliable moving company to assist with your relocation to Ethiopia, it is essential to conduct thorough research and vetting. Start by seeking recommendations from friends, family, or colleagues who have experience with international moves or have relocated to Ethiopia before. They may be able to provide valuable insights and recommendations based on their own experiences.

2. Utilize online resources such as review websites, forums, and social media platforms to read reviews and feedback from previous customers of moving companies that operate in Ethiopia. Look for companies with a strong track record of positive reviews and satisfied customers.

3. Verify the credentials and licenses of the moving companies you are considering. Ensure that they are registered and compliant with all the necessary regulations for international moves to Ethiopia.

4. Contact multiple moving companies to request quotes and compare their services, prices, and inclusions. Be wary of significantly low prices, as they may indicate subpar service or potential hidden costs.

5. Ask detailed questions about the moving process, insurance coverage, transit times, handling of customs procedures, and any additional services they offer. A reliable moving company should be transparent and communicative throughout the process.

6. Consider scheduling a virtual or in-person consultation with the moving companies you are considering to discuss your specific relocation needs and assess their professionalism and expertise.

7. Finally, trust your instincts and choose a moving company that gives you confidence in their ability to handle your move to Ethiopia efficiently and securely. By following these steps and conducting thorough research, you can increase the likelihood of hiring a reliable moving company for your relocation needs.

17. What are the best ways to stay connected with friends and family back home while living in Ethiopia?

1. Embracing technology is one of the best ways to stay connected with friends and family back home while living in Ethiopia. Utilize social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, and WhatsApp to easily share updates, photos, and videos with your loved ones.
2. Schedule regular video calls through applications like Skype or Zoom to have face-to-face conversations with your friends and family members, allowing you to maintain a strong connection despite the physical distance.
3. Consider setting up a group chat where everyone can stay in touch and share important news or updates. This can be a great way to feel connected and involved in each other’s lives.
4. Send regular emails or messages to keep your loved ones informed about your experiences and adventures in Ethiopia. Sharing stories and experiences can help bridge the gap between you and your friends and family back home.
5. Consider sending postcards or handwritten letters to add a personal touch to your communication. This can be a thoughtful way to stay connected and show your loved ones that you are thinking of them.
6. Lastly, do not underestimate the power of snail mail. Sending care packages or souvenirs from Ethiopia can be a special way to stay connected and share a part of your new home with your friends and family back home.

18. Are there any specific documents or paperwork I need to take care of before moving to Ethiopia?

Before moving to Ethiopia, there are several important documents and paperwork that you need to take care of to ensure a smooth transition:

1. Passport: Make sure your passport is valid for at least six months beyond your intended stay in Ethiopia.

2. Visa: Depending on your nationality, you may need to apply for a visa before entering Ethiopia. Check with the nearest Ethiopian embassy or consulate for specific visa requirements.

3. Work Permit (if applicable): If you are planning to work in Ethiopia, you will need to obtain a work permit. This typically requires sponsorship from an employer in Ethiopia.

4. Residency Permit: If you plan to stay in Ethiopia for an extended period, you may need to apply for a residency permit. This process can vary based on your reason for moving to Ethiopia.

5. Health Insurance: It is advisable to have comprehensive health insurance coverage before moving to Ethiopia to cover any medical expenses you may incur while living there.

6. Vaccination Certificates: Some vaccinations, such as yellow fever, may be required for entry into Ethiopia. Make sure you have the necessary vaccination certificates with you.

7. International Driver’s License: If you plan to drive in Ethiopia, you may need an international driver’s license in addition to your home country’s driver’s license.

8. Proof of Accommodation: You may be required to provide proof of accommodation in Ethiopia, such as a rental agreement or hotel booking, when applying for a visa or residency permit.

9. Household Inventory: If you are moving your belongings to Ethiopia, you may need to provide a detailed inventory list for customs clearance purposes.

10. Financial Documents: It is a good idea to have copies of important financial documents, such as bank statements and proof of employment, with you when moving to Ethiopia.

Make sure to check with the relevant authorities and do thorough research to ensure you have all the necessary documents and paperwork in order before your move to Ethiopia.

19. What are the best ways to meet other expats in Ethiopia?

Meeting other expats in Ethiopia can greatly enhance your expat experience by providing a sense of community and support. Here are some of the best ways to connect with other expats in Ethiopia:

1. Expat groups and communities: Joining expat groups or communities in Ethiopia is one of the most effective ways to meet fellow expats. These groups often organize social events, networking opportunities, and cultural activities, providing a platform to connect with like-minded individuals.

2. Online platforms: Utilize online platforms such as social media groups, forums, and expat websites dedicated to Ethiopia. These platforms allow you to interact with other expats, seek advice, and even arrange meetups in person.

3. Attend expat events: Keep an eye out for expat events, such as parties, networking mixers, or workshops, which are excellent opportunities to meet other expats in a casual setting.

4. Join local clubs or classes: Participating in local clubs, sports groups, or classes can also be a great way to meet expats with similar interests.

5. Volunteer opportunities: Engaging in volunteer work not only allows you to give back to the community but also provides a chance to meet other expats who share your passion for charitable causes.

By actively engaging in these avenues, you can expand your social circle, build meaningful relationships, and navigate expat life in Ethiopia more smoothly.

20. How do I prepare for the weather and climate in Ethiopia?

To prepare for the weather and climate in Ethiopia, there are several key steps you can take:

1. Research the climate: Understand the climate variations in different regions of Ethiopia as they can vary significantly. Ethiopia generally has a tropical monsoon climate with distinct wet and dry seasons, but temperatures and rainfall patterns can differ based on the specific location.

2. Pack appropriate clothing: Due to the varying climate, it is advisable to pack a range of clothing items suitable for both warm and cool weather. Lightweight and breathable fabrics are ideal for the warmer periods while layering up with warmer clothing for the cooler seasons is recommended.

3. Don’t forget essential items: Sunscreen, sunglasses, a hat, and a reusable water bottle are essential items to protect yourself from the strong sun and potential dehydration in the hot climate.

4. Prepare for rain: During the wet season, especially in highland areas, be prepared for heavy rainfall. Waterproof clothing and footwear will be essential to stay dry and comfortable.

5. Acclimatize slowly: If you are coming from a region with a different climate, give yourself time to acclimatize to the higher altitudes and potential temperature variations in Ethiopia to avoid any health issues.

By following these steps and being mindful of the weather patterns and climate conditions in Ethiopia, you can better prepare yourself for a comfortable and enjoyable stay in the country.